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  Acid Base and Buffer solution Acid: Acid are the substance which converts a blue litmus paper to red. Having the P H less than seven. Acid usually has a sour taste. When the acid react with base to form a salts and water. Example is hydrochloric acid. Base. Bass are the substance which convert red litmus paper to blue. Having the P H More than seven. Base usually has a bitter taste. When the base react with acid to form a salt and water. Example. Sodium hydroxide.  Arrhenius theory The concept of acid and base was first presented by the ARRENIUS in 1884. It is also known as the ARRENIUS theory of Ionization  and the Electronic Association. Acid: Acid is a substance which when dissolved in water, it gives the hydrogen ion (H + ) is known as the acid. Example is hydrochloric acid.  HCl------------->  H + + Cl - Base: Base is the substance which when dissolved in water, it gives the hydroxyl ion (OH - ) is known as the base. Example sodium hydroxide NaOH------------->
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pH Meter

  PH Meter Question 1)  What is full form of pH?   Answer) pH is denoting,  potential of hydrogen or  power of hydrogen Question 2) what is pH value or pH scale.? Answer)  pH is a scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution:   lower pH values correspond to solutions which are more acidic in nature while higher values  correspond to solutions which are more basic or alkaline. pH is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion the pH scale is logarithmic and inversely indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. A  lower pH indicates the higher concentration of hydrogen ions at 25 C° solutions with the pH less than seven are acidic and solutions with the pH greater than seven are basic. Question 3) what is equation of pH? Answer) PH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity. pH=-log 10   ( H +) Question 4) How to measure pH? Answer)  Answer) Primary pH standard values are resolute using a c

IR स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी और इसका सिद्धांत

IR स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी और इसका सिद्धांत  IR स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी क्या है और इसका सिद्धांत क्या है? एक अणु या एक रासायनिक यौगिक में यह पता लगाने के लिए कि कौन से कार्यात्मक समूह या समूह मौजूद हैं, हम IR स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी तकनीक का उपयोग करते हैं। आईआर स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी तकनीक का प्रदर्शन करने के लिए हम विद्युत चुम्बकीय स्पेक्ट्रम की एक विशिष्ट श्रेणी का उपयोग करते हैं जिसे हम IR (इन्फ्रारेड) विकिरण कहते हैं आईआर विकिरण तरंग दैर्ध्य की विभिन्न श्रेणियों से बना है और IR विकिरण के इस अनुप्रयोग को IR स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी के रूप में जाना जाता है क्योंकि यह पहचानने के लिए कि सभी कार्यात्मक समूह मौजूद हो सकते हैं हम IR विकिरण का उपयोग करते हैं इसलिए जब हम किसी नमूने पर आईआर विकिरण लागू करते हैं, तो हम इस तकनीक को आईआर स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी कहते हैं  अब आइए नजर डालते हैं आईआर स्पेक्ट्रोस्कोपी के सिद्धांत पर   जिस किसी भी नमूना का हम विश्लेषण करना चाहते हैं (नमूना किसी भी रूप में हो सकता है - ठोस, तरल या गैस) हम उसका नमूना तैयार करते हैं और इसे आईआर स्पेक्ट्रोफोटोमीटर में डालते हैं IR स्पेक्ट्रोफोटोमीटर वह उपकरण है

Quality control interview (Question & Answer) Part-2

Quality control interview Question.1) What is volumetric or titrimetric analysis.? Answer: It consists of determination of volume of solution of accurately known concentration required to react completely with the solution or substance to be determined. Question.2) What is standard solution.? Answer:   A solution of accurately known strength is known as standard solution, standard solution are usually expressed in terms of molarity or normality. Type of standard solution: a) Primary standard b) Secondary standard Question.3) What is primary standard solution.? Answer: Primary standard is a chemical or reagents which has certain properties such as: It is extremely pure Highly stable It is anhydrous It is less hydroscopic Has very high molecular weight Can be weighed easily Should be ready to use and available Should be preferably non toxic Should not be expensive Question.4) What is extremely pure  standard.? Answer: Primary standard should be extremely pure which means that, it s

Quality assurance (QA)

Quality Assurance (QA) Concept of quality assurance: Quality assurance is wide ranging concept, covering all matters that individually or collectively influence the quality of product. It is totally of the arrangements made with the object of ensuring that pharmaceutical products are of the quality required for their intended use. Quality assurance (QA) therefore incorporates good manufacturing practices (GMP) and other factors, such as product design and development. Responsibility of quality assurance: To insure that pharmaceutical products are designed and developed in a way that takes account of the requirements of good manufacturing practices (GMP) and other associated codes such as good laboratory practices (GLP)  & good clinical research practices (GCP) To ensure production and control operation are clearly specified in written form and GMP requirements are adopted. Managerial responsibilities are clearly specified in job descriptions. Arrangements are made for the manufactu

Customer complaint

  Customer complaint   Contents 1-Introduction 2-Advantage of complaint management system 3- WHO GMP guideline 4-Classification of quality detection 5-Type of complaints 6-Complaint handling system 7- Records of complaints Introduction: Complaint is define as "The statement that something is wrong or not good enough" Handling of complaint is also part of good manufacturing practices Consumer expects medicine to be safe and effective but despite best efforts to manufacture good quality products some defective formulation may reach customer Tush there should be reliable and effective system in pharmaceutical industry to deal with may any complaint to ensure the safety of customers and if necessary product may be recalled from market. Complaint in the case of pharmaceuticals may be related to the quality of product or problems in packaging. Foe example complaint of broken tablets in strips or improper labeling.   WHO GMP Guidelines: All compliant related to defective products mu

Process validation

Process validation   Process validation can be defined generally as a series of activities taking place over the life cycle of the product. The validation exercise establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of robustly delivering a quality product. After 24 years the FDA modernized its process validation guidance in 2011. The changes were consistent with trends in place within the pharmaceutical industry. The views changed from validation being a point in time event to being applicable over the product life cycle. The life cycle approach to drug product management is laid down in ICH Q7. Pharmaceutical Quality Systems   The FDA describes process validation as taking place in three stages. Process design Process qualification Continued process verification Process design Process qualification and continued process verification these stages align with the first three product life cycle phases to find an ICH Q7 Product development, technology transfer and